Tag: neurobiology

Targeted neurogenesis pathway-based gene analysis identifies ADORA2A associated with hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients display hippocampal atrophy, memory impairment, and cognitive decline. New neurons are generated throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain implicated in AD, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone of the olfactory bulb. Disruption of this process contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including AD and many of the molecular players in AD are also modulators of adult neurogenesis. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis in AD have been under-explored.📍

18F-FDG PET Hypometabolism Patterns Reflect Clinical Heterogeneity in Sporadic Forms of Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

Until now, hypometabolic patterns and their correlations with neuropsychological performance have not been assessed as a function of the various presentations of sporadic early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD). Here, we processed and analyzed the patients’ metabolic maps at the vertex and voxel levels by using a non-parametric, permutation method that also regressed out the effects of cortical thickness and gray matter volume, respectively. The hypometabolism patterns in several areas of the brain were significantly correlated with the clinical manifestations.📍

Tau PET using [18F]THK5351 and cerebral glucose hypometabolism in Alzheimer’s disease

This study aims to evaluate the clinical validity of [18F]THK5351 PET for the assessment of disease progression and symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Fifty one patients with AD dementia, 30 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 43 controls with normal cognition (NC) were included. All subjects underwent [18F]THK5351 PET, 3.0T MRI, and detailed neuropsychological tests. Regions of interest and voxel-based statistical analyses were performed. In patients with AD dementia, [18F]THK5351 retention was greater in most association cortices as well as the limbic area compared to NC or aMCI participants.📍

Initial brain aging: heterogeneity of mitochondrial size is associated with decline in complex I-linked respiration in cortex and hippocampus

Brain aging is accompanied by declining mitochondrial respiration. We hypothesized that mitochondrial morphology and dynamics would reflect this decline. Using hippocampus and frontal cortex of a segmental progeroid mouse model lacking Cockayne syndrome protein B (CSBm/m) and C57Bl/6 (WT) controls and comparing young (2-5 months) to middle-aged mice (14-15 months), we found that complex I-linked state 3 respiration (CI) was reduced at middle-age in CSBm/m hippocampus, but not in CSBm/m cortex or WT brain.📍